Teacher lack of computer and other technology skills has a negative effect on the adoption of technology in the classroom as well (Hew & Brush, 2007; Schneckenberg, 2009). Teachers who are uncomfortable with new technologies may experience anxiety over being asked to use it in their classrooms (Kotrlik & Redmann, 2009; Groff & Mouza, 2008). Some of this anxiety, however, can be relieved to some extent through training (Kotrlik & Redmann, 2009).

Teachers may also be resistant to what is perceived as additional work on their part having to learn and use new technologies (Meyer & Xu, 2009; Stewart, 2008; Schrum & Glassett, 2006). Learning new skills and pedagogies requires an upfront investment of time and effort on the part of teachers who often already feel that the are working beyong capacity, and can be considered an extension of an already long workday (Meyer & Xu, 2009; Schrum & Glassett, 2006).

Additional training and professional development are often unwelcome, particularly when there is no allotment made in schedules to provide additional times for such purposes. Fullan (2001) notes that teachers need time to discover how technology fits with their lessons and their pedagogy, and that facing "inadequate technical support, time, and recognition of the work involved" leaves teachers less likely to embrace technological innovation in the classroom (MacKeogh & Fox, 2009, p. 152).

There must be continued commitment to maintaining and upgrading course content and process as technology evolves (Meyer & Xu, 2009).




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